Making an investment within the Appropriate System — Ability to hear Assist

Maybe you have recently undergone a good audiometric check with a report of which shows that it’s period that you simply start have on a device? In the event this really is the first time experience, the task is usually definitely mind-boggling in addition to befuddling. Obtaining in addition to having an help will be a long time matter in addition to therefore it is obvious which the expense needs to be from the right spot in addition to within the right product.

Just before paying for a good ear canal product one has to endure healthcare check-up in addition to in line with the ability to hear check report, begins the method connected with deciding on in addition to fitting on the ability to hear product. The entire practice usually takes a couple of sessions while using the technician. The dealers or ability to hear guitar professionals will not be audiologists. The Country wide Mother board certifies this audiologist in Ability to hear Musical instrument Sciences. The audiologists get diplomas and are also scientifically skilled to help detect in addition to clinically handle a person affected by ability to hear loss pertaining to auditory restoration.

Buy certified dealers or professionals who is going to also analyze the ability to hear loss yet be sure that whichever ability to hear assist you purchase provides the authorization on the audiologist. Prior to choosing and purchasing, ability to hear devices invest in a in depth survey on the a number of such helps you can find, read opinions in addition to be mindful of the value directory this ability to hear helps. Consult the otolaryngologist regarding the suitability on the ability to hear help prior to in addition to following obtain on the product. Occasionally ING practitioner suggests a medical modification for the restoration on the ability to hear loss.

Plan a visit together with your audiologist for any ability to hear device trial run as long as the otolaryngologist possesses suggested you for any ability to hear help. Though purchasing a ability to hear help, purchase the item from the specialized that’s a lot more a medical individual in addition to fewer a ability to hear help seller. Always be in a very organization though enjoying a ability to hear help trial run program or whenever choosing a ability to hear product. You will discover patients as their audiogram studies discover modest ability to hear loss. Individuals possessing modest loss often neglect in addition to deter independently coming from wearing ability to hear helps. The aftermath is the loss continues growing after some time whenever untreated. Individuals usually really feel embarrassed whenever wearing such devices widely.

But later on, ability to hear devices are actually very well finished in addition to serviced correspond up to this design in addition to style assertion on the modern day. The two analog in addition to electronic digital helps can be found. Ability to hear devices connected with various shape, measurement, design in addition to technology get become a huge hit towards modern day design function. You can pick from the different possibilities in accordance with his or her private desires. Not really anyone provides the chance to find out just like some others some will usually find out a lot better than you. Get tried out, tested counseled about each and every doable expectancy that could create for you towards procedure for modifying what ability to hear devices could or are not able to complete.

Vatslya Hearing System is one of the best online shop in your area get best knowlages about hearing aid machine in Rajkot and also know about hearing aid machine.

VoIP Phone System: From Ringer Box Phones To Chatting Over Broadband

Many Internet users across the nations may find that a VoIP phone system is more efficient than traditional companies. Voice over Internet protocol was developed in 1973; first use was only between two mainframes on the same network. In today’s standards, with growing broadband services and more efficient hardware and software, VoIP has matured from walkie-talkie procedure to a staggering 400 million users by only one service in 2008.

A beginner to this idea may wonder how exactly does this work? Voice has traveled over wires between phones for ages; it travels over the Internet just as well, with more ease of access now for the public. Microphones and VoIP phones we install in our computers make this feat possible; along with new adapters for regular telephones, all of which transfer the digital information back into regular telephone signal so you may place calls.

There are many advantages across the board, for the average Joe to Mr. Business. Long distance companies for the most part incur outrageous fees for out of state calling, not to mention foreign calling. Call waiting, forwarding, and caller id are popular additions to telephone accounts- these can all be incorporated in VoIP programs. Automated attendants, call recording, and advanced conference calling are more superior embellishments, all potentials with the right carrier.

For all the skeptics, a couple items may need more attention. During power outages, some sequencers do not work; several providers do present backup for these times. Active Internet access, such as power to a router, can enable some systems; others require the use of a computer. Another question to ask yourself is whether the software you choose has 9-1-1 emergency capabilities; some do not connect. A further idea to examine before downloading or purchasing a VoIP is whether they extend white/yellow page listings or directory assistance.

Is VoIP beneficial to its’ consumers? Most programs are free or of very little charge for extra amenities; modest effort is involved in researching for the best VoIP to meet your needs. Many programs have one monthly, charge for long distance and international calling, which can prove fruitful for businesses or people with family from other countries. The minimal hardware required would be a microphone for those searching for the most efficient cost; many establishments looking to expand can employ companies to install all hardware and software needed for small and developed businesses. One more option for customers who want to avoid buying hardware and software altogether would be to hire a VoIP switchboard company, who simply forwards calls and handles all technical issues and upgrades on their side. Even if you have one, two or three phones, or a business with more than 1,000 phones, voice over Internet protocol programs is an investment worth exploring.

Some more interesting topics on voip phone system or you may also like hosted pbx.

Popular Internet Marketing That is Free to Low Cost

Instead of spending big bucks to advertise in print publications and participate in other costly offline marketing venues, many businesses of all sizes are turning to free to low cost internet methods and strategies to invest their time, effort and branding for a greater outreach. Because for much less than the price of one print classified ad, a company can generate many more leads, targeted leads, with methods that are free to very low cost on the Internet, while responses from print campaigns, if any, are often not worth the return on investment (ROI) in comparison.

Some of the more popular free to low cost internet marketing methods out there today follow.

1) Free Press Release and Article Directories – Well written articles and press releases help draw targeted Internet traffic to websites. Simply insert a link in the body of the press release that invites readers to visit a website for a free report or other offer in the last paragraph, and add a similar call to action in the resource box or byline or an article. Then submit the press releases and articles to free online article directories and press release sites. Find them by entering keywords like, “free article directory,” in Google or other top search engine.

2) Hire Ghostwriters – Hiring someone to write content for your blog, website, article and press release submissions work is easy to day and inexpensive when you outsource your work to ghostwriters. Find experienced, qualified writers on freelance bid sites like and on forums in your niche and in the Internet marketing arena, like at

3) Establish a Presence at Free Social Networking, Bookmarking and Other Sites – There are many places online where you can register for a free account, set up a web presence there, often with the ability to upload digital media to share with others, post on a blog and more, while also networking with fellow members and / or visitors to the site, as they make comments on your content, share their info and more. Some of these sites are:


Find many more by searching for starters. And sign up there to bookmark all your content for sharing with multiple sites and to learn more.

A couple points to keep in mind with these sites are: follow the rules at each, don’t spam and don’t go over board there. For example, Hubpages only allows two links to your sites, at the time of this writing. Don’t add three, trying to fake them out with an affiliate link. And don’t spam comments all over on other Hubs just to get links. This type negative activity can get you banned, your account closed.

4) Free Classified Online Ads – Search for “free classified ads” in Google and many sites show up. Some of the more popular places to submit your ads are:

a) craigslist
b) backpage
c) kijiji
d) gumtree
e) loquo
f) classifieds.myspace
h) adlandpro
i) usfreeads
j) oodle

For help writing your ads and even submitting them and keeping them up to date on each site, consider hiring help, outsourcing with a ghostwriter experienced with sales copy, and a virtual assistant who can open accounts at each place, submit your ads and follow up as they expire to renew them, revise them, etc.

Discover more strategies to increase website traffic for free .

Web Video Propels Search Engine Rankings

I first got the phone call a month or so ago. I was knee deep in web site marketing projects and was actually jammed to capacity. I was looking to finish up all of my small jobs so I could move forward and do some more challenging assignments. Plus I was in the middle of releasing some top notch online hybrid techniques that I was about to figure out on my own. This has become somewhat of a hobby of mine if not an obsession. This phone call was different from the ones that usually come into my office. As I learned more about my prospect on the other end of the phone I became somewhat intrigued.


The project that fell on my desk was for an online campaign for the Philippines. I have no idea about anything that pertains to Philippine culture but this didn’t stop me from getting involved. I was fascinated with the challenge of getting involved with this amazing project. You see, this customer was none other than the famous David Newby, Best Selling Author to, “Why Didn’t Anyone Teach Me This?”. Newby is well known for his financial strategies that he teaches here in the states and abroad. I was eager to get started and got so wound up in the conversation that I didn’t clarify the details. You see, I thought we had over a month to get this thing launched properly. Pleasantries were exchanged and money changed hands and my new customer was zooming off in his candy apple red Lamborghini

……… turns out I was wrong. I had 4 days to pull off the impossible.

I had exactly under 4 working days to get my client, David Newby, listed and ranked highly on Google and Yahoo. That is not a whole lot of time. You see, we had decided not to bother putting up any pay per click campaigns up for our efforts. We didn’t even want to put any sponsored links up. We were going to play a straight game of organic search engine rankings and do it very quickly. That meant that I had to get his pages at the top of Google without paying a dime.

Could it be done? Could we actually get our pages included into the Google directory index and have our pages rank at the very top? I knew that If I could actually get Newby in the top ten just once I had done my job. If I was able to get him listed just one time for every keyword set he had designed I would have been pleased. I had my work cut out for me. This meant that I had to get on the move. The more I sat around pondering the less time I had to make history happen.


The one thing we did that catapulted our results into another stratosphere was digital video. This wasn’t just your ordinary web video. We shot the video using a HD camera with high resolution and a green screen effect. Basically we used a simple chroma key effect and completely took out the background and made it all white. The effect was flawless but that is not what got us high rankings. We took that simple video and translated it for the search engines. The video search engines that is.

Only 10% of all web traffic comes from the search engines. That is actually pretty shocking when you consider the significance of it all. So where does the other 90% come from? The traffic comes from a variety of sources and these are:

1. Video Search Engines
2. Podcast Search Engines
3. Blog Search Engines
4. Social Networks
5. Publicity Sites

These are all in addition to the regular search engines. The magic of using all of these incredible elements is that they literally propel your rankings to the top – not once, not twice but multiple times. In fact, we were able to get to the top ten 8 out of 10 times in just about every category we picked. That is substantial. We did some incredible things with our rankings. We definitely got the word out about our seminar and info related products.

Now here is the one thing you may have never expected. We were able to get these top rankings in just four hours. That’s right. Four hours.

It took a little pushing and prodding but we were able to get our message out there to the masses in just a few hours. Web video is definitely an attention getter. Not only were we able to get our messages into the niche categories but also into the top of Google. This was accomplished without so much as paying a dime to Google for pay-per-click or any sponsored listings. This is substantial.

Imagine being able to knock out the high cost of pay per click and still being able to dominate the top of the search engines. That is something that is worth celebrating about. I found myself looking for alternative ideas to PPC after my clients kept complaining about high rising costs to market online. This constant rise of client dissatisfaction pushed me into finding new ways to getting top rankings with moderate fees. In doing so I was able to get away from the expected ways of online popularity.


The best way to get good at this type of marketing is to try out new services and live by doing. It is one thing to think about it but taking action is the greatest short cut to great results. Not every industry responds the same way. When I created my first online radio show, (podcast) I noticed immediately that I was not a big hit in the Midwest. However my ratings picked up pretty heavy in California and New York City and ironically that is where all of my business is coming from.

When we were hitting 8 out of 10 of the top ten listings on Google we noticed these listings came from a variety of sources. Some of them were from video listings, some came from podcasting sites, some came from social networks and others came from blogs. But the kicker came in a few weeks. Since web 2.0 services like and Google Video automatically creates HTML code it makes life very convenient. This means that visitors can copy and paste into their own web pages or blogs. And that is exactly what happened. Our videos started to pop up on services that we didn’t set up. Our clips started to pop up on video search engines that we never heard of. Someone had seen our clips and liked what they saw and posted them on other services. That means we got our material distributed for free.

This had a huge affect on our search engine rankings. This sent us to the very top on Google and Yahoo. I might also add that the other web site services jumped on board and put us up on high rank visibility as well. These other search engines often use the same technology. Ask Jeeves, Dogpile and many others borrow the same search engine technology to fuel their services.

The moral of the story? By using the new modern tools you can literally write your own ticket.

Ted Cantu is an ex-Art Director and the owner of He specializes in web site marketing, and direct response copywriting. Cantu creates search engine optimization campaigns, and sells his own Internet marketing courses.

Norfolk Premium Outlets Grand Opening

Area shoppers and tourists are invited to join the opening celebration at Norfolk Premium Outlets, Thursday and Friday, June 29-30.

Norfolk Mayor Kenneth Cooper Alexander will officially welcome the region’s newest shopping destination on Thursday, June 29 at 9:40 am. Stephen Yalof, CEO of Simon Premium Outlets and Scott Richardson, vice president development of Simon will be in attendance.

DIRECTIONS: Shoppers coming from the I-64 westbound off-ramp at Northampton Blvd should come straight down the ramp to the traffic signal. From there, turn right to access the dedicated left turn lane for Premium Outlets Blvd. Watch for posted signs.

Norfolk Premium Outlets boasts an ever-growing collection of fashion-forward labels offering daily savings of 25 to 65 percent. Visitors can expect to find dozens of sought-after outlet brands at Norfolk Premium Outlets, including Banana Republic Factory, Gap Outlet, Nike Factory Store, Steve Madden, Under Amour and more.

The Grand Opening Weekend will feature live entertainment, family festivities and prize giveaways. The highlight is a Friday night Beach Party Bash, June 30 from 7:30 PM– 9 PM. DJ Kurt and the Beach Patrol will lead a ‘60s inspired beach party, complete with dancing, beach music mixes and games, all leading up to the Beach Ball Drop at 8:30 p.m. The event will take place at the Entertainment stage near Market Hall. Following the bash, guests can look forward to the anticipated display of beach balls, released to cascade down over the crowd.

*Schedule of Events, June 29-30

Music and Entertainment
Thursday, June 29 and Friday, June 30 from 1 p.m. – 9 p.m.
Entertainment Stage near Market Hall
Guests can take a break from shopping and enjoy family-friendly performances and musical entertainment.

DJ Kurt
Throughout the day on Thursday and Friday

Mad Science: Fire & Ice
Thursday and Friday at 1 p.m.
Young scientists can see just how “hot” and “cool” science can be! Paper will disappear in a flash, carbon dioxide bubbles will pop and a special Mad Science “burp” potion will amaze children as they learn about dry ice, chemical reactions and the states of matter.

Strolling Entertainment
Thursday and Friday from 1 p.m. – 6 p.m.
Children can enjoy face painting and balloon artists throughout the center.

Mad Science Discovery Station
Thursday and Friday from 2 p.m. – 5 p.m.
Young shoppers eager to become a Junior Mad Scientist can experience fun, interactive experiments while exploring a variety of science concepts. Meet the Mad Scientists and perform some cool reactions!
Location: Near Gap Factory

The Significant Others
Thursday at 3 p.m. and Friday at 2 p.m.

BJ Griffin Duo
Thursday at 5 p.m. and Friday at 4 p.m.

10 Spot
Thursday at 7 p.m. and Friday at 6 p.m.

Prize-an-Hour Giveaways
Thursday, June 29 and Friday, June 30 from 11 a.m. – 4:55 p.m.
Entertainment Stage near Market Hall

Shoppers may register every hour to win prizes ranging from 0-0, starting at 11 a.m., near the Entertainment Stage. Five minutes before each hour, all entries will be collected for the next drawing. Beginning at 11 a.m., one winner will be announced at the top of each hour at the prize display area near the Entertainment Stage. See entry forms for complete rules and regulations.

Select stores will take part in celebrating the opening of Norfolk Premium Outlets with in-store events Thursday, June 29 – Sunday, July 2. Shoppers are encouraged to visit for more details.

Savvy shoppers are also encouraged to join the Simon Premium Outlets VIP Shopper Club for exclusive access to extra deals and savings. The Simon Premium Outlets VIP Shopper Club Enrollment Bar will be open Thursday – Saturday from noon – 6 p.m. near Skechers, and new VIP Shopper Club Members receive a free gift (while supplies last). Membership is free and provides access to exclusive benefits including online coupons, insider information from favorite brands, sales and event updates, special offers and more.

Norfolk Premium Outlets will host extended hours throughout the opening weekend from 10 a.m. – 10 p.m. Thursday, June 29 – Saturday, July 1 and from 10 a.m. – 9 p.m. on Sunday, July 2.

More information about Norfolk Premium Outlets
Facebook at @NorfolkPremiumOutlets, Twitter at @NorfolkPO and Instagram at @NorfolkPO. Share your favorite moments using hashtag #shopnorfolkpo.


7 Top ‘Music Downloading’ Facts

Music downloading has become one of the most common and controversial online activities to date, and is continuing to grow. Its popularity is largely due to the development of audio compression technology, broadband connections and increasing ownership of personal digital music players.

7 top ‘music downloading’ facts

1. Profits up

Even though the record companies are still complaining about the supposedly disastrous effects of music file sharing, the Warner music group confirmed back in 2005 that profits for the three months prior to December 31 increased to $ 69 million, from $ 36 million for the same period the previous year.

Profits continue to rise, and are believed to be due to the sale of high-margin digital tracks from music download sites like Rhapsody and Napster, coupled with a dramatic reduction in distribution costs.

2. File sharers took band to number 1

The British band ‘Arctic Monkeys’ debut album sold a staggering 360,000 copies in its first week of release. This amazing success has been attributed to the music file sharing community, spreading free CDs handed out at early gigs in 2004 on the P2P networks.

The band were reportedly amazed when crowds started to sing back the words as they performed at larger gigs, and highlights the role that viral Internet marketing and loyal fans played in promoting the band.

This supports the popular theory that the Internet is changing the way that bands break into the mainstream and market themselves, putting them in a very strong position, and setting an exciting precedent for the future.

3. File sharing is killing the music industry?

Despite the fact that the UK legal download market is thriving and that album sales are at an all time high, BPI (British Phonographic Industry) officials still insist that file sharing is killing the music industry, and that they must take action.

4. Dead grandmother sued

A month after she had died of a long illness, 83 year old Gertrude Walton became the target of a recording industry lawsuit accusing her of online music file sharing. Several record companies claimed that she had made available over 700 pop, rock and rap tracks online, using the net handle ‘smittenedkitten’.

5. Legal in Canada

Using P2P networks to download copyrighted music is legal in Canada. Instead, the Copyright Board of Canada have imposed a tax on recording media such as audio tapes, recordable CDs, and MP3 players which goes into a fund to compensate musicians and songwriters for any revenue lost due to copying.

Judge von Finckenstein is quoted as saying “I cannot see a real difference between a library that places a photocopy machine in a room full of copyrighted material and a computer user that places a personal copy of a song on a shared directory linked to a Peer-to-Peer (file sharing) service”.

Uploading remains illegal however, and this could become a model for countries looking for a balance between protecting artists’ copyright, and giving consumers more liberal access to copyrighted material.

6. Legal in France

France has determined that the sharing of copyrighted files on the Internet qualifies as “private copying”, and is legal for personal and non-commercial use.

7. “Piracy has no negative effect on legitimate music sales”

This was the conclusion of a study conducted by two university researchers, Felix Oberholzer-Gee of Harvard Business School, and Koleman Strumpf of the University of North Carolina.

The researchers found that the most heavily downloaded tracks ‘showed no measurable drop in sales’ and that music file sharing actually increases CD sales for popular albums that sell more than 600,000 copies. They found, after tracking sales of 680 albums over 17 weeks, that “for every 150 downloads of a song from those albums, sales increase by a copy”.

This is in direct conflict with the music industry’s allegation that Internet file sharing is having a detrimental effect on sales.

Jon Mills has created the TotalDownloader website which provides information on downloading techniques, increasing your speeds, maintaining anonymity, and much more. So get started now with your free 6 part course at

Is Nano Medicine And Nano Technology The Most Trending Thing Now?

The Journal of Nano medicine and Nanotechnology is an Open Access journal aims at exploring the prospectus of Nano technologies as a medical application to combat biological issues to attain normalcy. The very size of the nano-particle, which is equal to the size of biological molecules, is an added advantage, where the biological functions can be induced to the non-material so that they are useful in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications.

The Nanotechnology journal covers a wide range of topics in this field including molecular nanotechnology, nano sensors, nano particles, nano drugs, Nano materials, nano bio technology, nano bio pharmaceutics, nano electronics, and nano robotics. The journal encourages researchers and the practitioners to contribute original research manuscripts as research articles, review articles, commentaries, and editorials board members. The journal abides by a thorough single blind peer review.

The nano medicine Journal enjoys reputation and popularity among the medical practitioners, as a novice technology in the biomedical research that offers innovative therapeutic practices. Nanotechnology as a medical application offers plethora of opportunities for the practitioners to explore innovative ways of drug delivery systems, therapies and In vivo imaging techniques.

At the outset when nano medicine is expanding quickly, pharmaceutical industries are keen testing its role in targeted drug delivery, without affecting the health of the other organs. Since it is showing promising results, nano medical research is flourishing in a progressive path. The Journal of Nano medicine and Nanotechnology is indexed in reputed database like Index Copernicus with a Value of 101.22. The journal enjoys high Impact Factor of 3.573*; 2.07 and attracts 50,000 readers to its cites every month.

All published articles are assigned to Digital Object Identifier (DOI) – Cross Ref. These articles are included in the indexing and abstracting coverage of: Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), HINARI, Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, Sherpa Romeo, Open J Gate, Genamics Journal Seek, Academic Keys, Journal TOCs, Research Bible China, National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN), WTI-Frankfurt, Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Ref Seek, Hamdard University, EBSCO A-Z, OCLC- WorldCat, Proquest Summons, SWB online catalog Virtual , Library of Biology (vifabio), SciLit – Scientific Literature, Publons. All published articles are permanently archived and available in HTML and PDF formats at OMICS International.

7 Ways to Harvest Free Traffic

Using free website traffic tactics can be addictive. Once you start you might never want to pay for advertising again. Try these tips and see for yourself.

Tip #1: Organic Search Engine Rankings. There are only three search engines you need to worry about and those are Google, Yahoo, and MSN. Conquering top search engine rankings in the big three starts with good keyword research. When you know what search terms you want to target, it’s then a matter of tailoring your site to match what the search engines are looking for.

With Google you need lots of original content (that is, large websites) and natural-looking incoming links. With Yahoo its pretty much the same except that you can use reprinted articles, otherwise known as duplicate content, in building your subpages. With MSN you can attain top spots with small mini-sites that simply use the search terms in the domain.

You need incoming links, known as backlinks, to move up in the rankings. Some popular ways to get these include using social bookmarking sites, posting comments and trackbacks on blogs (and other sites) that don’t use “no follow” meta tags, submitting articles to article directories, posting your URL on directory sites, and exchanging links with other sites.

Tip #2: Social Networks such as Myspace. This usually involves making multiple profiles and getting very social on the social network with other users. Automation software is often utilized to make mundane tasks such as sending friend requests, comments, and messages to other users much faster. Myspace allows their database to be sorted by a nice range of demographics, which is very helpful if you need a target list of prospects to promote your product or service to. You can also access members of groups who all have a shared interest in a certain subject.

Tip #3: Free Classified Ad Sites. This is getting to be a very effective free traffic method, but you do need to go about it with some tact and creativity. Craig’s List is the king of free online classifieds, and a properly tailored campaign can harvest hundreds of targeted prospects per day. Software is very handy for managing larger campaigns.

Tip #4: Video Hosting Sites. Anyone can harvest sales leads from video hosting sites these days. You can make a video using a digital camera or free screen recording software on your computer, or a combination of both. This is where the creative types will soar above the crowd.

You Tube is the undisputed king of online video hosting, and a smart marketer can reap thousands of views for his or her video per day from inside You Tube itself. All you need to do is drive people to your page, which can be done by commenting on other videos or other peoples pages, and sending friend requests. Software makes this process much more efficient.

Tip #5: Question and Answer Sites. These are becoming incredibly popular, with Yahoo Answers being the clear leader for the moment. Anyone can ask questions, anyone can answer questions, and as long as you don’t come across as a blatant spammer, dropping your links into both questions and answers is pretty easy. It’s certainly worth your time to market any niche through Yahoo Answers.

Tip #6: Forums. Message board forums exist on the internet for just about every topic imaginable. An advanced Google search using “message board forum” and your topic of interest will probably turn up several places where people discuss your subject. Join these forums, become active and helpful to others, then do subtle marketing through your signature (or even your user name).

Tip #7 Give-aways on auction sites. Auction sites such as ebay are a great opportunity to find customers for your niche. Write a 10-page report that has a few good tips and a great sales pitch for your product, and then give it away for free (or charge something like $ 1 for it). Hype it up with some good sales jargon so it moves well. Capture the emails of those downloading the book and add them to an autoresponder service so you can keep mailing them offers.

These tips are only the beginning of free traffic opportunities on the web. Plenty of marketers make a nice income without spending a dime on advertising. Will you become one of them?

This article is meant to help you discover venues for reaping free traffic and is brought to you by, a membership site that focuses on free traffic harvesting tactics.


interactive touchscreen electronic digital building directories for corporate buildings offices (2)Property and facilities managers often struggle to keep their traditional building directories up to date and attractive. Needless to say that failure to do so, will leave your visitors confused and frustrated.
Our Electronic Building Directory Solutions helps to solve this dilemma by transforming your mundane list of names and locations to a colorful, dynamic, and interactive graphical presentation.

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How can hacker hack into Nuclear Reactors isolated networks?

Critical infrastructures like Oilrigs and nuclear reactors have sophisticated level of information security training & solutions to protect against cyber attack. However hackers are thinking one step ahead of security professionals to hack to into critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructures have isolated network thus very difficult to reach through from outside world. For this reason hackers have developed malware like Stuxnet and Flame, which spread via USB devices as lot of information is exchanged using USB storage devices explain ethical hacker Mike Stevens.
USB drives are reusable memory storage devices that are plugged into a computer’s USB port and are commonly referred to as flash drives or memory sticks. You can wipe them any number of times and use them for different purposes.
The USB drives are so common these days that hackers have started writing malwares specifically to target them. Using these malwares hackers are able to hack into isolated networks like in nuclear plants. In this article we are going to talk about USB related malware with the help of information security solutions experts.


A USB flash drive is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a USB connector, insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberized case. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, but drives for other interfaces also exist. USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection.

Below mentioned are the parts of a flash drive:

Standard-A USB plug – provides a physical interface to the host computer.
USB mass storage controller – a small microcontroller with a small amount of on-chip ROM and RAM.
NAND flash memory chip(s) – stores data (NAND flash is typically also used in digital cameras).
Crystal oscillator – produces the device’s main 12 MHz clock signal and controls the device’s data output through a phase-locked loop.
Cover – typically made of plastic or metal, protecting the electronics against mechanical stress and even possible short circuits.
Jumpers and test pins – for testing during the flash drive’s manufacturing or loading code into the microprocessor.
LEDs – indicate data transfers or data reads and writes.
Write-protect switches – Enable or disable writing of data into memory.
Unpopulated space – provides space to include a second memory chip. Having this second space allows the manufacturer to use a single printed circuit board for more than one storage size device.

Some drives offer expandable storage via an internal memory card slot, much like a memory card reader. Most flash drives ship pre-formatted with the FAT32, or ExFat file systems. Sectors are 512 bytes long, for compatibility with hard disk drives, and the first sector can contain a master boot record and a partition table.

There are two kinds of USB malwares first is are USB disk firmware malware and second one is normal computer malware that run on USB disks Ghost malware. We are going to cover more details of each of these malware and how hackers are using them hack into isolated network of critical infrastructures like power plants, nuclear reactors etc.

1.USB mass storage controller Firmware Based Malwares

Hackers make these malwares by reprograming the firmware on USB mass storage controller removable USB drives. As the malware is injected inside the firmware, which is on the micro controller and not on flash memory (where we stores our files), the antivirus cannot detect the malware or its activity.
Mike Stevens, information security training explains that once the malware is injected inside the firmware the USB disk can do the following

1. The USB firmware malware can emulate a keyboard and issue commands on behalf of the logged-in user, for example giving root access to the hacker and infect other devices in the network.
2. The USB disk can act as network card and change the computer’s DNS setting to redirect traffic.

Trust given by Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems to Human Interface Devices (HIDs), such as keyboards, network cards is the reason behind this attack. As activities performed by the malware appear as though a logged-in user performed those activities. The USB with malware in firmware is detected as a HID by an operating system, and malware runs the script to give root control to the hacker. Antivirus cannot detect this kind of threat as antivirus thinks that a user is logged in and user gave access to a trusted person.

There are 3 different kinds of attack based on USB mass storage controller Firmware.


As explained before the an attacker will take a regular USB disk which contains a small microprocessor, inject malware into firmware and take root control of the computer with help of this malware. This type of USB is called BADUSB.

Types of attacks with BADUSB

Spoof as USB of 4 GB however it has a space of 32 GB where it will use rest of space to copy the data and later on upload to hacker server. Thus when you format the disk you only format 4 GB of space.
Spoof as a keyboard or mouse.
Spoof as a network adaptor.
Spoof as a phone or tablet.
Spoof as a webcam.
Spoof as an authentication bank token.
Spoof as printers and scanners.
Spoof as a Type-C plug for both power and data for new Mac book, Chromebook Pixel. For all its versatility, Type-C is still based on the USB standard, which makes it vulnerable to a nasty firmware attack. Thus would be attack via power cord.


STEP 1. Check for micro controller details

The first check the details about controller and the associated firmware. You need software like ChipGenius, CheckUDisk, UsbIDCheck, USBDeview to determine that. These are open source software and are easily available. They will provide you Chip Vendor, Part-Number, Product Vendor, Product Model, VID, PID.

STEP 2. Restoring the original firmware and check the firmware (Optional Step)

You can use the step to repair your USB also if for some reason you brick it. You can visit website like and check for restoring software.
You can use VID and PID found in previous step to search for flashing software. You can download the MP (Mass Production) Tool like USBest UT16 tool according to your PID, VID and then flash the controller. This will restore your USB completely as new USB as per information security solutions experts.

STEP 3. Preparing for the injection of firmware with malware

We will cover the scenario of Toshiba USB drives having Phison controller. The tools needed are available on GITHUB.

You need to install Windows with .NET 4.0 installed and Visual Studio 2012
SDCC (Small Device C Compiler) suite to C:\Program Files\SDCC (for building the firmware and patches) and reboot the machine after installing these.
Double click on DriveCom.sln, this runs Visual Studio. Run the project and compile. Then the DriveCom.exe is in the tools folder.
Do the same with EmbedPayload.sln and Injector.
Run DriveCom as below to obtain information about your drive:
DriveCom.exe /drive=E /action=GetInfo
where E is the drive letter. This should tell you the type of controller you have (such as PS2251-03 (2303)) and the unique ID for your flash chip.

STEP 4. Performing Flashing firmware operation

For flashing you will need burner images. These burner images are typically named using the following convention:
where xx is the controller version (such as 03 for PS2251-03 (2303)), yyy is the version number (irrelevant), and z indicates the page size.
z can be either:
2KM — indicates this is for 2K NAND chips.
4KM — indicates this is for 4K NAND chips.
M — indicates this is for 8K NAND chips.

You can download the burner image from Internet from websites like
To build the custom firmware, open a command prompt to the “firmware” directory and run build.bat. You can try with firmware FW03FF01V10353M.BIN as 1.03.53.
The resulting file will be at firmware\bin\fw.bin, which you can then flash to your drive.
It will also produce a firmware\bin\bn.bin file, which is the burner image equivalent of the code.

STEP 5. Dumping the firmware

Once you have the image, enter boot mode by running:
DriveCom.exe /drive=E /action=SetBootMode
where E is the drive letter. Then transfer and execute the burner image by running:
DriveCom.exe /drive=E /action=SendExecutable /burner=[burner]
where E is the drive letter and [burner] is the burner image file name.
You can then dump the firmware by running:
DriveCom.exe /drive=E /action=DumpFirmware /firmware=[firmware]
where E is the drive letter and [firmware] is the destination file name

STEP 6. Injecting the malware into firmware

As per ethical hacking training professor of IICyberSecurity you can learn how to create an exploit payload and inject it in any code. However you can also get script from Rubber Ducky GItHUB page and with the help of Duckencoder you can create an inject.bin file from your script.
You can inject the payload into the firmware by running:
EmbedPayload.exe inject.bin fw.bin
Where inject.bin is your compiled Rubber Ducky script and fw.bin is the custom firmware image.

STEP 7. Flashing the firmware on USB disk controller.

Once you have the burner image and firmware image, flash it by running:
DriveCom.exe /drive=[letter] /action=SendFirmware /burner=[burner] /firmware=[firmware]
where [letter] is the drive letter, [burner] is the burner image name, and [firmware] is the firmware image name.

The above steps will lead to creation of BADUSB and this USB can be used to hack and do penetration testing. You can also create BADSD card which can used in phones and tablets to hack them. You can find in internet the video of information security solutions researchers showing how to modify the firmware of the SD card and inject malware into them.

1.2. USB Rubber Ducky or UKI (USB Key Injector)

Instead of creating your own firmware USB you can also buy USB that are sold in markets like USB Rubber Ducky or UKI (USB Key Injector). You can learn more USB Key Injector and USB Rubber Ducky in information security training of International Institute of Cyber Security.

1.3 Teensy micro controller board

Using a Teensy micro controller board with various types of software in order to imitate HID devices is the most traditional method. You can learn more about teensy in ethical hacking training.

2. GHOST USB Malware

This is like a normal malware but it runs only on USB devices and when it is inside a computer doesn’t do any activity. Criminals often use such methods to compromise isolated networks that are not accessible through Internet. The malware of this kind that was discovered recently was FLAME. In the case of Flame, the malware created a folder that could not be seen by a Windows PC, hiding the application and stolen documents from the user, mentions information security solutions expert. This opened up the possibility that people unknowingly carried Flame from PC to PC. Malware-carrying USB drives are effective in isolated networks holding highly sensitive documents, because portable storage drives are typically used to transfer data between computers on separate networks.
Flame can spread to other systems over a local network (LAN) or via USB stick. It can record audio, screenshots, keyboard activity and network traffic. The program also records Skype conversations and can turn infected computers into Bluetooth beacons, which attempt to download information from nearby Bluetooth-enabled devices. This data, along with locally stored documents, is sent on to one of several command and control servers of hackers. The program then awaits further instructions from these servers.

Prevention Measures

How to protect yourself from BADUSB, USB Rubber Ducky kind of devices

As per nuclear plant information security solutions expert Taylor Reed of iicybsecurity you can take following steps.

1. Connect only USB devices from vendors you know and trusted USB devices. For critical infrastructure like nuclear power plants and Oil Rigs, use devices which have firmware signed and secured by vendor in case somebody tries to break the firmware the devices will not work.
2. Keep your anti-malware updated. It will not scan the firmware but it should detect if the BadUSB tries to install or run malware.
3. Implement advance information security solutions, which will monitor the use of devices connected to your computer and any additional USB keyboard will be blocked.

How to protect yourself from GHOST USB malware

1. Keep your anti-malware updated.
2. Use Ghost USB Honeypot. Ghost is a honeypot for detecting malware that spreads via USB devices. The honeypot currently supports Windows XP and Windows 7.
3. The way Ghost works is that it first tries to emulate a USB thumb drive. If the malware identifies it as a USB thumb drive, it will trick the malware into infecting it. Ghost then looks for write-based requests on the drive, which is an indication of a malware. You can learn more about Ghost USB honeypot in ethical hacking training.

USB malware are very dangerous and immediate measures should be implemented to ensure the IT infrastructure security with the help of information security solutions experts.

As per ethical hacking training professor of IICyberSecurity you can learn how to create an exploit payload and inject it in any code. However you can also get script from Rubber Ducky GItHUB page and with the help of Duckencoder you can create an inject.bin file from your script.